Clinical Research in the area of pain management is ongoing. Gebauer topical anesthetic skin refrigerants are reviewed in many such studies. The FDA has determined that each of the Gebauer family of topical anesthetic skin refrigerants is substantially equivalent (SE) to each other in terms of efficacy. Therefore, each clinical study is relevant to all Gebauer topical anesthetic skin refrigerants.
Berberich FR, Landman Z.
Reducing immunization discomfort in 4-to-6- year old children: a randomized trial.
Pediatrics, 2009, August; 124(2); e203-209. Epub 2009 Jul 13.
Scott J. Engel, Ahmed M. Afifi, James E. Zins
Botulinum Toxin Injection Pain Relief using a Topical Anesthetic Skin Refrigerant
Journal Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg (2009), doi:10.1016/j.bjps.2009.07.045*
*This article has been published online prior to being assigned to a volume and issue of the journal
Ilya Petrou, M.D.
'Painless' Botox: Topical anesthetic product proves to ease injection pain.
Dermatology Times, March 2010, 31(3), Used with permission.
Richard A. Weiss, M.D., and Phillip T. Lavin, M.D., Ph.D.
Reduction of Pain and Anxiety Prior to Botulinum Toxin Injections With a New Topical Anesthetic Method
Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg, Vol. 25, No. 3, 2009
K Abbott and S Fowler-Kerry
The use of a topical refrigerant anesthetic to reduce injection pain in children.
Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, November 1, 1995; 10(8): 584-90
S Mawhorter, L Daugherty, A Ford, R Hughes, D Metzger, and K Easley
Topical vapocoolant quickly and effectively reduces vaccine-associated pain: results of a randomized, single-blinded, placebo-controlled study.
Journal of Travel Medicine, September 1, 2004; 11(5): 267-72
More available on this topic at National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) PubMed
E Cohen Reis and R Holubkov.
Vapocoolant spray is equally effective as EMLA cream in reducing immunization pain in school-aged children.
Pediatrics, December 1997; 100(6): E5.
Reducing the pain of venipuncture.
Journal of PeriAnesthesia Nursing, April 1999; Vol. 14, No. 2: 95-101
P Armstrong, C Young and D McKeown
Ethyl chloride and venepuncture pain: a comparison with intradermal lidocaine.
Canadian Journal of Anesthesia, Vol. 37, 656-658.
K Farion, K Splinter, K Newhook, I Gaboury, W Splinter,
The effect of vapocoolant spray on pain due to intravenous cannulation in children: a randomized controlled trial.
Canadian Medical Association Journal, July 1, 2008; 179 (1).
CR Cannon and B Replogle
Fine-needle aspiration biopsy: is anesthesia necessary?
Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, April 1999; 120(4): 458-9.
SC Russell and E Doyle
A risk-benefit assessment of topical percutaneous local anaesthetics in children.
Drug Safety, April 1997; 16(4): 279-87.
IR Selby and BJ Bowles
Analgesia for venous cannulation: a comparison of EMLA (5 minutes application), lidocaine, ethyl chloride and nothing.
Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, May 1995; 88(5): 264-7.
SC Zappa and SB Nabors
Use of ethyl chloride topical anesthetic to reduce procedural pain in pediatric oncology patients.
Cancer Nursing, April 1, 1992; 15(2): 130-6.